Home / National Industrial Relations / Countries / Sweden / Workplace Representation

Workplace Representation

Workplace representation for employees in Sweden is through the local union at the workplace. There is no other channel. Legislation requires the employer to inform and negotiate with the unions at the workplace before making major changes, and many of the practical arrangements for doing so, which elsewhere in Europe are fixed by law, are left in Sweden to local negotiations.

In Sweden it is trade unions who provide employee representation at work. There is no separately elected structure along the lines of the works councils which exist in many other European states. This reflects the Swedish model, in which key aspects of industrial relations are determined directly between employers and trade unions, with limited involvement by the state.[1] It is also possible thanks to the high level of union density (68% in 2019 – see section on unions), which means that in most workplaces unions represent  the vast majority of employees.

 

However, although the Swedish model is built on trust between the parties and union strength, the structure of employee representation at work is underpinned by three pieces of legislation, which were passed in the 1970s, although they have subsequently been amended. These are: the Co-determination in Working Life Act (MBL), passed in 1976; the Position of Trade Union Representatives in the Workplace Act (FML), passed in 1974; and Work Environment Act (AML), passed in 1977. The Work Environment Act deals with health and safety, but it is an important aspect of employee representation at the workplace, as the local union representative is frequently also the local health and safety/work environment representative.

 

However, this legislation, particularly Co-determination in Working Life Act (MBL), is much less prescriptive than comparable legislation in other countries, leaving the details to be decided between the employer and the union. Under Section 11 of the MBL the employer is obliged to initiate negotiations with the union before taking “any decision regarding significant changes in its activities” or “regarding significant changes in working or employment conditions”. However, with some exceptions (see Tasks and rights, below), the precise nature of these changes is not spelled out in the legislation. In any case, if the union wants to negotiate a change affecting their members that the employer does not consider “significant”, it can still do so under Section 12 of the MBL, which gives the union the right to request that negotiations be opened before the employer “takes or implements a decision that concerns a member of the organisation [the union]”.

 

However, the rights in Sections 11 and 12 of the MBL are limited to unions with which the employer already has a collective agreement, and, although there are some exceptions (see below), the principle, that workplace representation is through the union with which the employer already negotiates, is central to the Swedish system.

 

As well as having more extensive negotiating rights under the MBL, the co-determination legislation, unions which have a collective agreement covering the employer are also the only bodies which can appoint representatives under the FML, the separate legislation covering trade union representatives in the workplace. And it is also unions with an agreement covering the employer which initially appoint safety representatives under the work Environment Act, the AML.

  

In practice, workplaces are likely to have representatives from several unions. The horizontally segregated structure of Swedish unions, with separate union confederations for manual, non-manual and graduate employees, as well as a substantial managers’ union outside the three confederations, means that larger employers will have separate collective agreements with three or possibly four unions. Each of these will have negotiation and representation rights.

 

Where a union does not have a collective agreement which covers the employer, its position is much weaker. It does not have the right to appoint a workplace representative under the FML, and it has fewer negotiating rights under the MBL. The employer still has an obligation to negotiate in respect of the working or employment conditions of individual employees, who are members of that union. But there is no obligation to negotiate about the employer’s own activities, if the union does not have a collective agreement covering the employer.

 

There are also specific provisions to deal with redundancies and business transfers, two topics covered by EU legislation, when an employer is not covered by any collective agreement. In such cases, under Section 13 of the MBL, the issue must be negotiated with “all affected employees’ organisations”, in other words with all the unions with members in the workplace who are affected by either the redundancy or the business transfer.

 

However, these are exceptions. In most cases the employer will only negotiate changes at the workplace with the unions who signed its industry-level collective agreement. (Overall, 88% of employees are covered by collective bargaining.[2])

 

It is also important to emphasise that although the employer has an obligation to negotiate, there is no obligation for these negotiations to end with an agreement, and that, other than in a few circumstances (see below), the union has no veto powers over the employers' plans. The ultimate right of management to manage, initially recognised more than a century ago in the central collective agreement of 1906 – the so-called “December compromise”, still applies. Indeed, even where an employer takes a decision before negotiating – and so potentially acts contrary to the MBL (the legislation allows action before negotiations in extraordinary circumstances) – the decision is not invalid. Instead, the employer must fulfil the negotiating obligations. Failure to do so can result in substantial damages.

 

Although there is no legal obligation to set up employee representation at the workplace in Sweden, the results of Eurofound’s 2013 and 2019 European Company Surveys show it is found widely. In 2013, 54% of establishments in Sweden with at least 10 employees had a trade union representative. This was well above the EU28 average for employee representation of 32%.[3] 

 

The comparable figure for 2019 is lower at 50% in Sweden, but this may partially reflect differences in how the information was collected, and, again, Sweden is above the EU27 average of 29%.  As elsewhere in Europe, larger organisations are more likely to have such a structure than smaller ones. The 2019 survey shows that 88% of establishments with more than 250 employees had a trade union representative, and that in those with between 50 and 249 employees, the percentage of workplaces with a representative was 67%. In smaller workplaces in Sweden, those with between 10 and 49 employees, the survey indicates that close to half (46%) had a trade union representative.

Numbers and structure

 

There are no rules about the numbers of union representatives who must be appointed in a workplace, and there is no employment threshold above which a workplace requires a union representative. The only link to employee numbers, other than that for employee representatives at board level (see section on Board-level representation), is in the Work Environment Act, which states that one or more safety (work environment) representatives must be appointed in a workplace “where at least five employees are regularly employed” and that a safety committee should be set up when there are at least 50 regular employees (AML Chapter 6, Sections 2 and 8).

 

However, effectively there are some limits on the numbers, as the legislation on trade union representation in the workplace states that leave for union tasks “may not be greater than is reasonable with regard to the conditions in the workplace” (FML Section 6A).

 

The legislation similarly provides no guidance on how trade union representation at the workplace should be organised. This is left to individual unions, whose rules differ, as a comparison of Sweden’s three largest unions indicates.

 

Unionen, the largest union in Sweden with 566,000 economically active non-manual members, states in its rules that “clubs [groups of union members in the same workplace] and workplace representatives are the union's bodies in the workplaces”, and a club can be formed if there are at least five Unionen members at the workplace and they agree to its formation at a meeting. If there is no club, members can appoint representatives. The club board, elected by the members, is responsible for negotiations with the employer, but this responsibility can be taken on by union representatives, if there is no club, provided this has been specifically agreed at the annual union meeting.[4]  At the end of 2019, there were 2,710 union clubs (fackliga klubbar) and 3,471 union representatives (arbetsplatsombud) in Unionen.[5]

 

Kommunal, the largest union in the LO manual workers’ confederation with 501,000 economically active members, has a potentially more flexible structure of workplace organisation, with members able to organise in clubs, negotiating groups or other groupings. The precise form is decided in consultation between the members involved and the leadership of the section, covering a larger workplace or employer. Elected representatives in the section are responsible for representing members’ interests in relation to the employer, and individual workplace representatives are given authority to negotiation on operational issues once they have completed union training.[6] At the end of 2019, Kommunal had 24,097 individual workplace representatives, 102 clubs and 239 sections.[7]

 

The workplace organisation structure in IF Metall, the largest manual private sector union with 242,000 economically active members, is similar to that in Unionen, with clubs in larger workplaces and individual representatives in smaller ones. However, under IF Metall’s rules, individual representatives do not have responsibility for negotiations with the employer. If there is no club, all local negotiating tasks, including those relating to operational changes, are taken on by the higher levels of the union.[8] At the end of 2019, IF Metall had 1,348 clubs and 3,644 individual representatives.[9]

 

The fact that employers are covered by separate agreements for different sections of their employees – manual, non-manual, graduate staff and management – means that in a single workplace several unions will have the right to appoint workplace representatives. On some issues, the employer must negotiate with them separately, but unions will often come together for issues which affect them all.

 

Tasks and rights

 

Trade union representatives at workplace have a wide range of tasks. As representatives of the union, they pass on information about what the union is doing, tell members how they can influence union decisions and try to recruit new members. They also have a key role on behalf of their fellow workers, dealing with the employer (see below), and letting the union know what members want. If they have a right under the union’s rules to negotiate individually, they will negotiate a range of issues with the employer, and, if this is not the case, it is likely that they will be part of the union club at the workplace that will negotiate with the employer.

 

Trade union rights at the workplace vary, depending on whether the union concerned has signed a collective agreement with the employer. This section initially sets out the situation where the employer is covered by a collective agreement with the union concerned – normally through an industry-level agreement with the employers’ association to which the employer belongs. The much more limited rights available to a union which does not have an agreement covering the employer are set out at the end of this section. The main statutory basis for both sets of rights is the Co-determination in Working Life Act 1976 – the MBL.

 

For unions with a collective agreement with the employer, negotiations in the workplace are normally divided into three main blocks:[10]

  • dispute negotiations – where the aim is to reach an agreement or consensus on how agreements or legal rules that have already been reached are to be interpreted and applied (Section 10 MBL);
  • negotiations of interest – where the two sides seek to reach an agreement on a local issue which has not previously been agreed (Section 10 MBL); and
  • co-determination negotiations – where the union is seeking to influence the employers’ decisions (Sections 11 and 12 of the MBL).

 

Dispute negotiations cover issues where either the union or the employer feels that the law or the collective agreement has been breached. Examples from the union can include unfair dismissals, failure to follow redundancy procedures, failure to pay agreed wages, employing temporary workers in breach of collective agreements and incorrect holiday entitlement. Employer may raise issues relating to employees’ behaviour. These negotiations are subject to specific time limits (Section 16 MBL); the parties must provide copies of the documents referred to in the negotiations (Section 18); and, as in other negotiations, the parties must appear at the negotiations and “put forward a reasoned proposal for a solution of the matter to which the negotiations relate” (Section 15).

 

Under the Swedish system, many issues which, in other countries, would move immediately to the labour courts or some other part of the court system, are dealt with through negotiations between the employer and the union. These negotiations take place initially at local level, although often with support from regional union officials. However, if local negotiations are unsuccessful the issue can be passed up the chain to the national level, and it is normally only if these national negotiations fail that the issue goes to the Labour Court (Arbetsdomstolen).

 

Negotiations of interest fall into two main categories. The first concerns the elements of the national collective agreement left for local resolution. Most national negotiations provide for some aspects of how the pay increase is to be distributed to be decided through local negotiations (see section on collective bargaining, although, particularly in the public sector, union paid officials may also be involved in these local deals. The second category of negotiations of interest relates to issues like the level of IT support, the procedure for dealing with violence from clients and skills development, where agreement may be possible. These are areas where both sides will see the benefit of an agreement, as the unions’ possibility of bringing pressure to bear on the employer is limited because of the obligation to maintain industrial peace while the industry-level collective agreement is in force. In negotiations of interest there is no recourse to the courts.

 

Co-determination negotiations are intended to allow unions to influence the employer’s decisions and activities. These are the issues which in many other countries are covered by the works councils’ right to be informed and consulted.

 

Section 11 of the MBL requires the employer to take the initiative and open negotiations with the union before taking any decisions relating to "significant changes” in the employer’s “activities" and before "significant changes in working or employment conditions for employees" who belong to the union. Only where there is an “extraordinary cause” can the employer take and implement a decision before negotiations.

 

Judgements by the labour court have defined these “significant changes” as including:

  • changes in work organisation and methods;
  • personnel changes including changes in supervisors;
  • the preparation of the annual budget;
  • structural changes; and
  • alterations in the patterns of recruitment or dismissal.

 

The employer must also negotiate with the union on issues, which do not involve significant changes, but where the union asks for negotiations, provided the employer’s decisions concern a member of the union (Section 12). Again, the employer cannot take or implement the decision before fulfilling the duty to negotiate (other than in special circumstances).

 

Negotiations first take place at local level (Section 14) but if agreement cannot be reached the unions have the right to ask for negotiations at national level.

 

Under the information requirements of the MBL, the employer is obliged to keep the union informed of its general economic situation, production levels and personnel policy. The union should also be given an “opportunity to examine books, accounts, and other documents that concern the employers' business, to the extent required by the union in order to protect the common interests of its members in relation to the employer”. Provided it is reasonable to do so, the employer should provide the unions with copies of the documents they request and help with their examination (Section 19). The information should be provided to the local union in the first instance (Section 20). There are also specific information obligations when employers are planning to dismiss employees because of a lack of work. These include: the reasons for the dismissals, the number and type of employees affected; the number and type of workers normally employed; the period over which the dismissals are planned; and the amount and basis of any compensation to be paid (Section 15).

 

As well as these statutory obligations, the MBL also provides that a union with a collective agreement on pay and conditions should also be able to request a collective agreement on co-determination “in matters regarding the conclusion and termination of contracts of employment, the management and distribution of work and the operation of the activity in general” (Section 32). This can even go as far agreeing that “decisions that would otherwise be taken by the employer shall be taken by employee representatives or by a joint body specifically constituted for such purpose” (Section 32). However, there are no sanction on employers who refuse to enter into such agreements.

 

Several agreements on co-determination were reached in the 1980s, most notably the 1982 agreement on efficiency and participation, known in Swedish as the Utvecklingsavtalet (UVA). This was a framework agreement reached between the main Swedish private sector employers’ organisation, on one side, and the LO manual workers confederation and the PTK, the private sector bargaining group of non-manual unions on the other. It was subsequently incorporated into a range of industry level agreements, which remain in force.

 

The UVA provided further suggestions on the type of information that could be provided to the unions and made it clear that the aim of the agreement was both to secure that the businesses remained efficient, profitable and competitive and to provide security, employment and development at work for employees. The industry-level agreements that have been based on the UVA set out how employees' knowledge can be used in relation to the business's finances, the introduction of new technology and work organisation. They also provide union members with five hours’ paid time-off a year to participate in union meetings

 

The UVA also included the possibility that, in line with Section 32 of the MBL joint union-employer bodies could be set up to take decisions which would otherwise be taken by the employer alone. However, there is no evidence that joint decision-making bodies of this type have been established.

 

Instead unions have relied on the more limited rights they have under Sections 11 and 12 of the MBL. These require the employer to open negotiating with the union before making changes, but they do not prevent those changes being made. As the guidance from Sweden’s largest union, Unionen, makes clear, the final decision is taken by the employer: “When the negotiation has been completed, the employer has fulfilled the obligation to negotiate, and if the parties do not agree in the negotiation, the employer decides”.[11]

 

There is, however, one specific and very limited area where the union has a veto, and two others where it can delay the implementation of the employer’s plans until they have been judged lawful.

 

The union’s veto right is set out in Sections 38 to 40 of the MBL and relates to the use of sub-contractors. Employers are specifically required to negotiate with the union before a decision is made to hire someone not employed by the employer, unless the work is short-term and temporary, requires specialist skills or the use of sub-contractors has already been agreed by the union. Even where these exceptions apply, the union can still require that negotiations take place. Following the negotiations, the union can veto the appoint of the subcontractor if it believes this would violate the law or collective agreements or would “otherwise contravene generally accepted practices within the parties’ area of agreement”. However, Sweden’s public procurement legislation indicates that this right of veto relates to specific circumstances, such as where the sub-contractor is bankrupt or has not paid taxes. If the union exercises its veto incorrectly, the employer can claim against it for damages.

 

The union’s power to delay is set out in Sections 33 and 34 of the MBL, which state that in two specific circumstances, where there is a dispute between the union and the employer, the union’s interpretation should prevail until the issue has been decided, either through central negotiations or in the Labour Court. The two circumstances are the interpretation of collective agreements on co-determination, signed under Section 32 of the MBL, and, more importantly, a union member’s duty to perform work. This allows the union to say that a union member is not contractually obliged to carry out certain work, and its interpretation stands until either central negotiations or the Labour Court have overturned it. However, there are certain circumstances, such as safety work, where the employer can nevertheless insist that work be carried out, and if the union is found to be wrong in its interpretation of the employee’s contractual obligations it may be liable to pay damages to the employer.  

 

The rights set out above refer to the situation when an employer is covered by a collective agreement with the union concerned. If the union does not have a collective agreement with the employer, its rights are more limited. In these circumstances the employer is obliged to negotiate with the union when the issue “specifically relates to the working or employment conditions of an employee who is a member” of the union concerned (Section 13 MBL) but is under no obligation to negotiate on changes in activities, as it is with a union with a collective agreement. Where the employer’s plans relate to redundances or business transfers, and the employer is not covered by any collective agreement, the employer is obliged to negotiated with all unions whose members might be affected.

 

Employers are also obliged to provide unions which whom they do not have a collective agreement, but who have members among their employees with information on how “operations are developing as regards production and financially and similarly on the guidelines for personnel policy” (Section 19a MBL). Employees may be appointed by the union to receive the information, and reasonable leave to receive the information should not be refused (Section 19b MBL). The rights under these sections were added to take account of the 2002 EU information and consultation directive (2002/14/EC) and they are less detailed than the comparable information rights of unions with a collective agreement with the employer (Section 19 MBL).

 

Unions without a collective agreement with the employer also do not have the right to negotiate an agreement on co-determination, the limited veto rights on sub-contracting or the right for their interpretation of the obligation to carry out work to have priority. These are all rights only enjoyed by unions with a collective agreement (see above).

 

Election and term of office

 

Workplace representation is provided through the trade unions, operating under their own rules, and there are no statutory regulations which lay down how trade union representatives should be chosen; it is for the unions to decide.

 

The FML, the 1974 legislation on trade union representatives at the workplace, states simply that the law “applies to a person who has been appointed by an employee organisation to represent the employees at a certain workplace as a trade union representative” (Section 1). The only requirement is that the employer should be informed by the union as to who has been chosen, and that the employee organisation is a union to which the employer is bound by a collective agreement.

 

There are important differences in how unions choose union representatives and their precise role, as these examples illustrate.

 

In Unionen, the largest union, the club board (klubbstyrelsen) is responsible for negotiations with the employer, and workplace representatives (arbetsplatsombud) are only appointed if there is no club. The club board is elected annually at a members’ meeting, while employee representatives are elected at a members’ meeting for a maximum of two years. In Kommunal the workplace representatives are elected by the section board, the employer-level lay structure in the union, based on proposals from members in the workplace, although they can also be elected by the club board (a lower-level lay structure), if the section board chooses this approach. Their term of office is three years. In IF Metall, the largest private sector manual union, the club is responsible for dealing with the employer, and its board is elected at the annual meeting for a period of two years, with half resigning every year. The club board also appoints workplace contact representatives (kontaktombud) after consultation with the membership concerned. Their term of office is a maximum of two years.[12]  

 

Protection against dismissal

 

Union representatives, like union members, are protected by the provisions on the right of association under the general legislation on co-determination, the MBL (Sections 7 to 9). These protect them against dismissal or other disciplinary measures relating to their union activities.

 

In addition, Section 4A of the FML, the specific legislation on union representatives, states that union representatives may not be given “worsened working conditions or terms of employment” because of their union position union, and that, when they relinquish their union position, they must be assured of the same, or equivalent terms, as if they had not held it. If the working conditions or the terms of employment of the union representative are to be changed, the union must be informed in advance and must have the opportunity to consult with the employer. The proposed change cannot be made unless this consultation has taken place (Section 5 FML).

 

In addition, representative must be given priority in redundancy selection if the union considers it is “of special importance for the union’s activities in the workplace” for them to remain employed(Section 8 FML). Employers who fail to observe union requests in this area may find that their dismissals are invalid.

 

In general, where there are disputes as to whether the law on protection of union representatives is being applied correctly, the union’s interpretation of the provisions continues to apply until the issue has been resolved, either through central negotiations or in the Labour Court (Section 9A FML).

 

Time off and other resources

 

The legislation on trade union representatives, the FML, does not set down a fixed period of time off for trade union duties at work. It simply states that “leave” (time off) “required for trade union duties” (literally the “trade union mission”) should be provided but it may not be “greater than is reasonable with regard to the conditions at the workplace” (Section 6A FML), and that for leave relating to trade union activities at the representative’s own workplace” representatives should be paid (Section 7).

 

It is left to consultation between the employer and the local union organisation to determine “the scope and location of the leave”. But industry level agreements sometimes indicate what is regarded as “reasonable”. In the central government sector, for example, the national agreement provides for one union representative on full-time union duties for every 500 members in the local union.[13] However, none of the agreements signed by IF Metall, the largest private sector manual union, include maximum or minimum figures for paid time for union activities. In its guidance booklet the union suggests that the following are some of the important factors in determining the amount of time to be provided for union duties: “the number of employees, the nature of the workplace, the composition of the workforce, staff turnover, employment conditions, working hours, types of wages, payment systems, special problems and the contractual situation”.[14] Time off will normally include going to outside meetings and on courses (see below) provided these are linked with the workplace.

 

The union representative either as an individual or as part of the trade union committee is entitled by law to use of a room or other space for union duties carried out there (Section 3 FML). Local agreements may extend these rights to the use of various items of office equipment – telephone, fax, computer, photocopier etc – and in some cases provide for secretarial support. The question of exactly what facilities the union representatives should have is normally one of the first issues to be negotiated between the union and the employer.

 

The 1982 agreement on efficiency and participation also provided for the trade union representatives to make use of external consultants, paid for by the employer, where major changes are in prospect. Typically, the employer will pay for a consultant for a week.

 

Training rights

 

The FML, the legislation on trade union representatives, does not contain specific provisions on training. However, the right to paid time off for union duties set out in Sections 6A and 7 of the FML has been accepted as covering a right to participate in trade union education, and unions provide both basic and follow-on courses for workplace representatives.

 

In addition, under separate legislation, the 1974 Student Leave Act (Studieledighetslagen) all employees have the right to (unpaid) study leave, to take part in an organised course if they have been employed by the same employer for at least six months or at least 12 months in the previous two years. If the leave is for study which “to a significant extent relates to trade union or union-related issues”, this qualification period does not apply (Section 3).

Representation at group level

 

The 1982 agreement on efficiency and participation stated that information on the whole group should be given to union representatives in the companies within it and where decisions are planned which have an impact on several group companies the unions "should appoint a group of representatives with power to discuss and negotiate with group management".

 

In practice, the fact that employee representation takes place entirely through the unions means that they can set up their own structures for groups of companies, with a union club at group level (koncernklubb). In the finance union, Finansförbundet, for example, the position of group club member is part of the union’s structure.[15] Under Section 3 of the FML, union representatives must be given access to workplaces other than their own, if this is necessary for their union duties.

 

[1] See further e.g. Adlercreutz, A. & Nyström, B. Sweden, in International Encyclopaedia for Labour and Industrial Relations, 2010, Fahlbeck, R. & Mulder B. J., Labour and Employment Law in Sweden, 2009, and Eklund, R., Sigeman, T. & Carlson, L., Swedish Labour and Employment Law: Cases and Materials, 2007

[2] Den svenska modellen i en oviss tid: Fack, arbetsgivare och kollektivavtal på en föränderlig arbetsmarknad by Anders Kjellberg,Lund University, 2020 Charts 14 and 15 https://portal.research.lu.se/portal/en/publications/den-svenska-modellen-i-en-oviss-tid(11ad3d7f-b363-4e46-834f-cae7013939dc).html (Accessed 17.12.2020)

[3] Eurofound (2015), Third European Company Survey – Overview report: Workplace practices – Patterns, performance and well-being, Figures for Table 44

[4] Unionen Stadgar 2019, Section 3.1, 3.2,3.3 and 3.6 https://www.unionen.se/sites/default/files/files/Stadgar_antagna_kongress_2019_201023.pdf (Accessed 17.12.2020)

[5] Årsrapport Unionen: 2019 https://www.unionen.se/sites/default/files/files/Arsrapport2019_200515_low_0.pdf (Accessed 17.12.2020)

[6] Kommunal Stadgar 2019, Section 9.9 and 9.10 https://www.kommunal.se/sites/default/files/attachment/stadgar_2019_svenska_kommunalarbetareforbundet_webb_.pdf and https://www.kommunal.se/arbetsplatsorganisation (Accessed 17.12.2020)

[7] Kommunal:  Verksamhetsberättelse, hållbarhetsrapport, årsredovisning & koncernredovisning  2019 https://www.kommunal.se/sites/default/files/attachment/verksamhetsberattelse_2019.pdf (Accessed 17.12.2020)

[8] IF Metall Stadgar 2017-20, Section 26.8  https://www.ifmetall.se/globalassets/avdelningar/forbundskontoret/resurser/dokument/stadgar/stadgar_2017.pdf (Accessed 17.12.2020)

[9] IF Metall Verksamhetsberättelse 2019 https://www.ifmetall.se/globalassets/avdelningar/forbundskontoret/resurser/dokument/verksamhetsberattelse/verksamhetsberattelse2019.pdf (Accessed 17.12.2020)

[10] See, for example, UNIONEN website https://www.unionen.se/rad-och-stod/om-forhandling and Förhandla lokalt, IF Metall, October 2019 https://www.ifmetall.se/globalassets/avdelningar/boras/resurser/dokument/fortroendevald/forhandla-lokalt_webb_20191009.pdf (Accessed 17.12.2020)

[11] Unionen website https://www.unionen.se/rad-och-stod/medbestammandeforhandling-sa-har-gor-du (Accessed 17.12.2020)

[12] Statutes of Unionen, 3.2, 3.5 and 3.6; Kommunal 5.1; and IF Metall 23.2, 23.5 and 23.6

[13] Facklig förtroendeman, Arbetsgivarverket  https://www.arbetsgivarverket.se/ledare-i-staten/arbetsgivarguiden/fragor-och-svar/facklig-fortroendeman/  (Accessed 17.12.2020)

[14] Förhandla lokalt, IF Metall, October 2019

[15] See Finansförbundet website https://www.finansforbundet.se/medlemskap/sa-har-kan-du-paverka/att-arbeta-fackligt/ (Accessed 17.12.2020)

L. Fulton (2021) National Industrial Relations, an update (2019-2021). Labour Research Department and ETUI (online publication). Online publication available at http://www.worker-participation.eu/National-Industrial-Relations.