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 Portugal

Workplace Representation

Although in theory there are two channels of workplace representation of employees for most issues – through the workplace union representatives and through an elected works council, in practice works councils are relatively rare. They normally only exist in large companies where unions are strong. The rights of both are limited to information and consultation, with no opportunity to block management decisions.

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Health and Safety Representation

Romania has a system of specially elected health and safety representatives, who should be present in all organisations with at least 10 employees. In larger organisations (50 or more employees) a joint health and safety committee should be established. This has a wide range of duties, although the employer is not obliged to accept its decisions.

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Collective Bargaining

The system has been fundamentally changes by legislation passed in 2011 and collective bargaining at national level, which previously set minimum pay and conditions for the whole economy, has been abolished. There are also new rules for bargaining at industry and company level, which has weakened the position of unions.

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Financial Participation

In the context of the privatization process which took place after 1990, 30% of the shares of Romanian commercial companies were transferred to the Romanian workforce. Many of those who received shares sold them in the following years, so that the proportion of shares in employees’ hands has fallen significantly.

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Collective Bargaining

Negotiations take place at national, industry and company level in Spain and since 2002, with the exception of 2009, an annual national agreement has provided a framework for lower-level bargaining. The overall level of coverage is high at around 70% of the total workforce.

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Board-level Representation

There is no overall right to employee board-level representation. However, there are a small number of employees on the boards of some public companies.

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Key Facts

Population10,542,398
Collective Bargaining Coverage 92%
Proportion of Employees in Unions 19%
Principal Level of Collective Bargaining

industry

Workplace Representation

union – works councils exist in theory but less frequently in practice

Board-level Representation

yes: state-owned companies

Company Board Structure

monistic

Sources: see individual country sections; where a range of figures has been quoted, the lower number has been taken

 Spain

European Works Councils - Facts and Figures 2006

Since its first publication, this book on the state of play in European Works Councils has become a key reference tool and this newly revised and updated version will prove invaluable to anyone seeking both quantitative information and understanding of the issues surrounding the formation and operation of EWCs. All relevant data is presented in a total of 161 figures, all of them accompanied by explanatory text.

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