|Collective Bargaining Coverage||98%|
|Proportion of Employees in Unions||8%|
|Principal Level of Collective Bargaining||
industry and company
union and works council/employee delegates – but union normally dominates if present
yes: state-owned and private companies
|Company Board Structure||
monistic or dualistic (choice)
Sources: see individual country sections; where a range of figures has been quoted, the lower number has been taken
In membership terms the French trade union movement is one of the weakest in Europe with only 8% of employees in unions. It is divided into a number of rival confederations, competing for membership. (The main confederations are the CGT, CFDT, FO, CFTC and CFE-CGC.) But despite low membership and apparent division French trade unions have strong support in elections for employee representatives and are able to mobilise French workers to great effect.more ...
Collective bargaining takes place at national, industry and company level and at each level there are detailed rules about who can negotiate and the requirements for an agreement to be valid. Industry level agreements are the most important level for negotiation in terms of numbers covered, although the rates they set are generally well below what is actually paid.more ...
Legislation passed in 2013 greatly extended the range of companies covered by the obligation to have employee representatives at board level, and it has been extended again in 2015. As well as state-owned companies which were previously covered, large private companies must in future also have at least one employee representative at board level. This is in addition to representatives of employees holding shares and employee representatives who can be present at board meetings, but are not board members.more ...
European representatives from France – for both European Works Councils and European Company bodies – are appointed by the unions. The exception is board level representatives in a European Company, where the representative body decides how they should be chosen.more ...
Employee representation on health and safety issues in the private sector is now provided through the Social and Economic Committee, the single body covering all areas where employees have representation rights, rather than a separate health and safety committee. These new arrangements began to come into effect in January 2018. In the public services, the key body for employee representation on these issues continues to be a separate health and safety committee.more ...
France can look back at a long tradition of employee financial participation. France is one of the leaders in the incidence of participation schemes in Europe. State support for employee financial participation is stronger than in other European countries. Companies with 50 employees or more are required by law to offer a profit-sharing scheme.more ...