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Key Facts

Collective Bargaining Coverage 90%
Proportion of Employees in Unions 27%
Principal Level of Collective Bargaining


Workplace Representation

union and works council

Board-level Representation

yes: state-owned and private companies

Company Board Structure

monistic or dualistic (choice)

Sources: see individual country sections; where a range of figures has been quoted, the lower number has been taken

Document Bedrac

News on European Companies (SE) – June 2007

The SE Factsheets on established and planned European Companies (SEs) have been updated. The SE database currently provides information on a total of 89 companies. However, only 74 out of the 89 can be considered as established – registered – SEs (20 normal, 24 UFO, 16 shelf and 14 empty). Some data are also available on 10 planned, 2 renamed, 1 liquidated and 2 transformed companies.


Industrial Relations in Bulgaria and Romania

Information has been added on the industrial relations systems of the two new EU member states Romania and Bulgaria. It includes the following topics: trade unions, collective bargaining, workplace representation, board-level representation and European-level representation (EWC and SE Works Council).


Slovenia implemented the SE Directive in June 2006.

Transposition of the SE legislation in Austria (Updated report: June 2004)

The company constitution in the European Company (Societas Europaea or SE) provides for a right to vote on the SE’s organisational structure (Art. 38). Companies can choose between two systems: (i) the dual or two-tier system of separate supervisory board and management board, which is customary in Austria, or (ii) the one-tier system, in which control and management are combined in one body (board or administrative body), used predominantly in Anglo-Saxon countries. This right to vote on the organisational structure of the company constitution is new in Austria. It is mandatory by law for national companies to adopt the dual or two-tier management system.

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