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Financial Participation

Since the 1990s employee financial participation and profit-sharing in particular have been encouraged by the Finnish government, mainly via new legal regulations and initiatives. The most recent reform came into force on 1 January 2011.

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Health and Safety Representation

Safety representatives, who are normally appointed by the union, should be present in all workplaces with at least five employees in Sweden. They have the power to halt work if there is an immediate and serious threat to health. A joint safety committee should be set up in larger workplaces and the Swedish system also provides a network of regional safety representatives, usually union officials, who can intervene where there is no safety committee.

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Financial Participation

There has been a debate about workers’ financial participation in Sweden since the 1960s. The incidence of participation schemes is above average by European comparison.

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Key Facts

Population5,401,267
Collective Bargaining Coverage 91%
Proportion of Employees in Unions 74%
Principal Level of Collective Bargaining

industry – but much left to company level negotiations

Workplace Representation

union

Board-level Representation

yes: state-owned and private companies

Company Board Structure

monistic or dualistic

Sources: see individual country sections; where a range of figures has been quoted, the lower number has been taken

 Sweden

Trade Unions

Trade union density is relatively low at around 12% of employees and membership is divided between a large number of organisations. There are two large confederations, NSZZ Solidarność and OPZZ, and one somewhat smaller one, FZZ. However, a significant number of union members are in small local unions not affiliated to any of the main confederations.

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Health and Safety Representation

Elected health and safety representatives are the main way that the interests of employees are represented in the area of health and safety in Hungary. However, in larger employers there is also a joint health and safety committee, made up of representatives of both sides.

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Across Europe

Each country has a different experience and different characteristics. This section summarises some of the key features of the way that industrial relations are organised across Europe.

European-level Representation

In most cases the union or unions choose the Polish representatives for the bodies linked to European Works Councils or European Companies. The exception is board members, who are to be elected by all employees.

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Key Facts

Population38,167,000
Collective Bargaining Coverage 10-15%
Proportion of Employees in Unions 15%
Principal Level of Collective Bargaining

company

Workplace Representation

union (or works council)

Board-level Representation

yes: (formerly) state-owned companies

Company Board Structure

dualistic

Sources: see individual country sections; where a range of figures has been quoted, the lower number has been taken