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Workplace Representation

The local ‘primary level’ unions are the most important form of employee representation in Greece. They have clear legal rights covering information, consultation and negotiation, although as a result of the crisis no-union bodies have been given negotiating powers. The law also provides for a works council structure. But in reality, works councils are only found in a few companies, and where they exist, they work closely with the local union.

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Trade Unions

Lack of precise data makes it difficult to give figures of trade union membership in Portugal and there is a large gap between the totals provided by the unions and the union density estimates of the government. There are two main trade union confederations, the CGTP-IN and the UGT, whose relationship was initially marked by conflict rather than co-operation, but has now improved. Trade union structures are complex with almost 350 autonomous individual unions.

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Document Facts

Board-level Representation

Employee representatives have no right to be board members in Romania, although they can attend board meetings for some items.

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Key Facts

Collective Bargaining Coverage 65%
Proportion of Employees in Unions 25%
Principal Level of Collective Bargaining

industry – but crisis and consequent legal changes have given greater role to company negotiations

Workplace Representation

union – works councils exist in theory but not often in practice

Board-level Representation

yes: state-owned companies

Company Board Structure


Sources: see individual country sections; where a range of figures has been quoted, the lower number has been taken

What is a European Company (SE)?

About this website

Since the beginning of the European integration process there has been a clear commitment to provide employees in Europe with the right to be involved in company decision-making. From the 1970s this has led to the adoption of a number of European directives supplementing and enhancing national worker participation rights. Not least with the adoption of the European Works Council Directive, the European Company (SE) Directive and the Framework Directive on information and consultation the relevance of the European legislation has significantly increased.

With more and more companies operating Europe-wide (or even globally) the transnational level of employee interest representation is becoming more and more important. This requires that company management, employee representatives and their trade unions deal increasingly with cross-border questions of worker participation on different levels.

This website seeks to meet the increasing need for accurate and easily accessible information by giving its users access to what is happening at European level in the field of employees' rights to information, consultation and board-level representation (participation).

Information available on includes:

  • European Works Councils (EWC)
  • European Company (SE)/European Cooperative Society (SCE)
  • Information, Consultation & Participation Framework
  • Corporate Governance & EU Company Law
  • EU Social Dialogue
  • EU-27 National Industrial Relations

The website also provides you with information on the EU-27 industrial relations backgrounds, which differ significantly from one Member State to another. The website is intended to contribute to a better mutual understanding by offering basic information on all EU Member States in respect of trade unions, collective bargaining, workplace representation, health and safety, board-level representation and the selection procedures for EU-level bodies (European Works Councils, SE Works Councils). With the ‘Compare countries’ tool it is possible to quickly compare countries with regard to one or more of these topics. is designed as a European information platform. It is primarily addressed to national and European practitioners of worker participation and their trade unions, but also to an interested public, political institutions and academia.

The European Company - Prospects for worker board-level participation in the enlarged EU

The booklet provides information on different aspects of the European Company (SE) such as the question of worker involvement, the national transposition processes and taxation aspects. Moreover, information is given on the development and the different national systems of worker participation on supervisory or administrative boards throughout the European Union. (Available for free in English and German)

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