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Board-level Representation

Employee representatives have no right to be board members in Romania, although they can attend board meetings for some items.

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Key Facts

Population11,290,067
Collective Bargaining Coverage 65%
Proportion of Employees in Unions 25%
Principal Level of Collective Bargaining

industry – but crisis and consequent legal changes have given greater role to company negotiations

Workplace Representation

union – works councils exist in theory but not often in practice

Board-level Representation

yes: state-owned companies

Company Board Structure

monistic

Sources: see individual country sections; where a range of figures has been quoted, the lower number has been taken

 Portugal

Workplace Representation

Although in theory there are two channels of workplace representation of employees for most issues – through the workplace union representatives and through an elected works council, in practice works councils are relatively rare. They normally only exist in large companies where unions are strong. The rights of both are limited to information and consultation, with no opportunity to block management decisions.

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Health and Safety Representation

Romania has a system of specially elected health and safety representatives, who should be present in all organisations with at least 10 employees. In larger organisations (50 or more employees) a joint health and safety committee should be established. This has a wide range of duties, although the employer is not obliged to accept its decisions.

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Collective Bargaining

The system has been fundamentally changes by legislation passed in 2011 and collective bargaining at national level, which previously set minimum pay and conditions for the whole economy, has been abolished. There are also new rules for bargaining at industry and company level, which has weakened the position of unions.

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Financial Participation

In the context of the privatization process which took place after 1990, 30% of the shares of Romanian commercial companies were transferred to the Romanian workforce. Many of those who received shares sold them in the following years, so that the proportion of shares in employees’ hands has fallen significantly.

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Key Facts

Population10,542,398
Collective Bargaining Coverage 92%
Proportion of Employees in Unions 19%
Principal Level of Collective Bargaining

industry

Workplace Representation

union – works councils exist in theory but less frequently in practice

Board-level Representation

yes: state-owned companies

Company Board Structure

monistic

Sources: see individual country sections; where a range of figures has been quoted, the lower number has been taken

 Spain