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European-level Representation

The hierarchy for choosing European representatives from Belgium for European bodies is the works council, the health and safety committee and the union delegations.

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Trade Unions

Trade unions in Belgium are divided between competing confederations, which have clear political traditions. The two largest CSC/ACV and the FGTB/ABVV are linked to the christian and socialist movements respectively, while the smaller CGSLB/ACLVB is linked to the liberals. Despite this the unions are able to co-operate and around half the workforce is unionised – with union membership growing.

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Workplace Representation

Workplace representation in Hungary is provided by both local trade unions and elected works councils with the balance between the two varying over time. Under the new labour code, unions have negotiating rights but have lost their monitoring powers and their right to be informed and consulted. Works councils have information and consultation rights but in practice often find it difficult to influence company decisions.

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Workplace Representation

Unions are central to workplace representation in Denmark. Local union representatives take up employees’ concerns with management and are often also members of the main information and consultation body – the cooperation committee.

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European-level Representation

European representatives from Luxembourg are chosen by the employee delegations. In most cases they must be employees, but this is not the case for the members of an SNB for a European Company, where union officials can also be chosen.

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Key Facts

Population5,573,894
Collective Bargaining Coverage 80%
Proportion of Employees in Unions 67%
Principal Level of Collective Bargaining

industry – but much left to company negotiations

Workplace Representation

union

Board-level Representation

yes: state-owned and private companies

Company Board Structure

dualistic

Sources: see individual country sections; where a range of figures has been quoted, the lower number has been taken

 France

Health and Safety Representation

Workers’ health and safety representatives represent Maltese employees in the area of health and safety. However, the legislation does not specify how many should be appointed or define their precise powers. They should be chosen by the employees in the first instance but, if the employees do not make a choice, the representatives are appointed by the employer.

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Key Facts

Population3,003,641
Collective Bargaining Coverage 15%
Proportion of Employees in Unions 10%
Principal Level of Collective Bargaining

company

Workplace Representation

union – or works council if there is no union

Board-level Representation

no

Company Board Structure

monistic or dualistic (choice)

Sources: see individual country sections; where a range of figures has been quoted, the lower number has been taken