More than half Norway’s employees are in unions and although union density has declined slightly in recent years, union membership has increased. The majority of unions are grouped in four confederations, LO, UNIO, YS and Akademikerne. While UNIO and Akademikerne primarily organise more highly qualified employees, there is direct membership competition between LO and YS unions.
Figures published by the national statistics office Statistics Norway show that there were 1,744,982 trade unionists in Norway at the end of 2013.1 This total includes some non-working students, pensioners and others. However, three-quarters of trade union members are employed. The most recent figures from the Labour Force Survey analysed by the research body Fafo, show that in 2013 there were 1,254,011 employees who were trade union members, or 51.7% of all employees.2 This is slightly lower than the estimate in the ICTWSS database of union membership, which put union density at 54.6% in 2011.3 This relatively high level of union density has been achieved and maintained (see below), despite that fact that unlike Norway’s Nordic neighbours, unemployment benefits are not paid through the unions.
There are four union confederations in Norway, and LO is by far the largest, with members across the economy, although it has fewer members with higher levels of educational qualifications. The unions affiliated to LO have 897,740 members in total and 627,000 in employment. (For LO, as for the other confederations, the total membership figures are from Statistics Norway and the number in employment come from Fafo. Both are for 2013.) The next largest grouping is UNIO with 322,058 members in total and 241,224 in employment. UNIO was founded in December 2001, following the breakup in 1997 of the AF confederation, which brought together unions organising employees with college and university qualifications. UNIO’s largest areas of membership are teachers and nurses, although it also has other significant affiliates (see below). The third largest union confederation is YS, which has 221,578 members (157,098 in employment). YS was formed in 1977 as a confederation of unions which had previously been independent and it has members in both the public and private sector. The smallest confederation is the Akademikerne, whose member unions organise professionals with degree-level education. It has 177,948 members (129,689 in employment).
There are also 125,658 members in unions which are not affiliated to any of the confederations, of whom 99,000 are employed. The largest of these non-affiliated unions is NITO. Its 75,057 members (54,682 employed) are mainly graduate engineers, who have completed at least a three-year degree programme.4
These figures mean that LO organises 25.8% of all employees, UNIO 9.9%, YS 6.5%, Akademikerne 5.3% and other union organisations 4.1% (figures from Fafo for 2013).
There are differences in the approach taken by the different confederations on the question of the extent to which pay increases should vary between industries and companies (see section on collective bargaining) and that was one of the main reasons for the breakup of the AF confederation in 1997. There is also competition for membership between the unions in LO and YS, both in the private and the public sectors.
Each of the confederations is made up of a number of individual unions, based on industrial and occupational groupings. LO has 24 individual affiliated unions of which the largest is Fagforbundet, formed in 2003 out of a merger of the municipal employees’ union NKF and a union organising employees in health and social care, also largely employed by the municipalities. It has 334,980 members in total (all figures for the end of 2013 from Statistics Norway ). LO’s second largest affiliate, Fellesforbundet, is also the product of several mergers. Initially formed by five unions, largely in manufacturing plus construction, the graphical union joined it in 2006 and the hotel and restaurant workers’ union in 2007. It now has 148,128 members. LO’s other affiliates are significantly smaller. HK, which includes banking, retail, tourism, transport and a range of other service industries as well as non-manual workers in manufacturing, has 66,798 members; IE which organises workers in the oil and chemical industries and in 2009 merged with the furniture industry union, has 58,733 members; and the central government union NTL has 50,215 members. The remaining 19 LO unions range in size from 38,308 in the EL & IT Forbundet, which organises electricians and IT workers, to several unions with fewer than 1,000 members. The newest LO affiliate is the airline pilots’ union Norsk Cockpit Forbund, which joined LO on 17 February 2015 .
Norway’s second largest confederation, UNIO, has 12 affiliated unions, and as with LO, two are much larger than the rest. The largest UNIO union is the education union Utdanningsforbundet, which was created in 2002 out of a merger of two existing teachers’ unions. The bulk of Utdanningsforbundet’s 156,946 members work in primary and secondary schools, but it also has substantial membership among those working in pre-school education. The second largest UNIO union is the nurses’ union NSF with 101,128 members. Other medium-sized unions in UNIO are the Forskerforbundet, which organises academic-related staff in universities and research institutions and has 18,620 members, the Politiets Fellesforbund, which organises in the police and has 14,835 members and the physiotherapists union, Norsk Fysioterpeutforbund, which has 9,963 members.
YS, the third largest confederation, has 18 affiliated unions. The largest is Delta, which has 68,364 members and organises primarily in the municipal sector. The next largest is the finance union Finansforbundet, with 38,581 members, followed by Parat, with 34,198 members, which organises across a range of industries, and Negotia, with 21,781 members, which is the largest YS union in the private sector and covers IT and sales staff, technicians and those with accounting responsibilities. Parat and Negotia were both set up in 2005 as the result of mergers.
The fourth largest confederation, Akademikerne, has 13 affiliated unions and, like LO and UNIO, its two largest affiliates make up more than half of its total membership. Akademikerne’s largest affiliate is Tekna, with 64,692 members. Its members are professional employees with an MA or equivalent in science or technology, irrespective of where they work. The second largest Akademikerne union, with 30,383 members, is the medical association, Den Norske Lægeforening, which organises doctors. Other significant Akademikerne unions are the association of business economists, Econa with 19,689 and the lawyers’ association, Norges Juristforbund, with 18,612 members.
The close link with the Labour Party is one of the issues that divides LO from the YS confederation, which emphasises its political independence. The other confederations, UNIO and Akademikerne, are also politically unaligned.
The number of trade unionists in Norway has gone up in recent years. Between 2004 and 2013, the total number of trade unionists increased by 15.5% from 1,510,633 to 1,744,982, while the number of trade unionists in employment grew by 12.3%, from 1,116,230 to 1,254,011.The confederations organising more qualified employees grew fastest over the period, with UNIO increasing its employed membership by 30.3% between 2004and 2013, and Akademikerne by 27.4% although these figures are affected by the fact that the Forskerforbundet, with around 15,000 members at the time, moved from Akademikerne to UNIO in 2006. LO and YS also grew, although less rapidly: LO increased its employed membership by 5.8% between 2004 and 2013, and YS by 3.1%. The number of members in unions not affiliated to the main confederations declined by 40% over the same period.6
L. Fulton (2015) Worker representation in Europe. Labour Research Department and ETUI. Produced with the assistance of the SEEurope Network, online publication available at http://www.worker-participation.eu/National-Industrial-Relations.